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Guide to spices

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How to Buy Them, How To Store Them, How To Use Them

Presented By The National Restaurant Association In Cooperation With The American Spice Trade Association



A spice is any aromatic substance of vegetable origin used to add flavor or color to food. The word “spice” is an all-inclusive term that encompasses 3 categories: Spices, Herbs and Aromatic Seeds.

A. SPICES are derived the bark, root, fruit or berry of perennial plants, Usually grown in the tropical zones. For example: Cinnamon bark, Ginger root, Nutmeg fruit, or Black pepper berry.

B. HERBS are distinguished from spices in that they are the leaves only of annual and perennial low-growing soft-stemmed shrubs of the temperate zones. Examples are: Basil, Marjoram, Tarragon, Thyme and Rosemary.

C. AROMATIC SEEDS are the seeds of lacy annual plants. Examples are: Anise seed, Caraway seed, Coriander seed and Fennel seed.

D. We might also consider as a fourth category the Dehydrated Vegetables. Examples of these are: Onion, Garlic, Sweet bell peppers, Horseradish, Mushroom, Celery flakes and Chives. All the spices mentioned are called “Natural Spices” because, except for drying, they are completely raw and unprocessed.

2. WHAT IS A SEASONING? A seasoning is a blend of two or more spices, herbs or seeds. It can also contain other ingredients, such as, salt, sugar, starches, flavors and various food chemicals.

3. WHAT IS AN ESSENTIAL OIL? This is the volatile oil derived from the spice, which contains the essential odor or flavor. It is separated from the spice primarily by means of steam distillation. In the case of black pepper and ginger, the essential oils contain only the aromatic portion without the pungency or heat; the latter is provided by the oleoresin. By definition, the essential oil or volatile oil is readily vaporized at high temperatures. This is the reason for the intense aroma that we get while cooking with spices. It is because of the essential oil that spices impart their characteristic flavor to food products.

4. WHAT IS AN OLEORESIN? This is a viscous substance containing both volatile oil and a fixed or non-volatile oil or resin. Oleoresins are prepared by the extraction of ground or cracked spices with a pure chemical solvent, such as, ethylene dichloride, which is then removed by distillation. Oleoresins impart the taste or pungency or the spice, such as, in black pepper and ginger; the color, as in paprika and tumeric; and the heat, as in the Capsicum red peppers.

5. WHAT IS A SOLUBLE SPICE? This is a dry product consisting of spice essential oils or oleoresins coated or “plated” onto a neutral carrier, such as, salt, sugar or dextrose. When mixed with water, a soluble spice dissolves completely. Soluble spices and seasonings are used wherever the appearance of natural or ground spices is undesirable in a food product, for example, Tomato catsup, Salad dressings, and picked meat products. Soluble spices are free flowing and are designed to be pound for pound replacements for natural ground spices. They are easy to use, disperse quickly, and contribute to product uniformity. Unlike natural spices, soluble spices are not subject to insect infestation or mold. However, their flavor may be less stable due to more rapid volatilization of the essential oils.

6. WHAT IS AN EXTRACT? This is a solution obtained by the percolation of alcohol through a substance. Commercially prepared extracts usually consist of an essential oil dissolved in alcohol and water. The common extracts used in the baking industry are: Vanilla, Orange, Lemon and Almond.

7. WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM GRANULATION? This refers to the physical size of particles of spice. To measure the actual size, a universally accepted system has been devised. Under this system, particles are classified by the use of silk or woven wire cloth sieves known as screens. A 50-mesh screen has 50 square holes per linear inch. Common sizes range from 5 to 200 mesh, with the latter used primarily for mustard flours. THE LARGER THE SCREEN NUMBER, THE SMALLER THE PARTICLE SIZE. By far, the majority of the spice industry makes use of the United States Standard Testing Sieves, the dimensions of which are controlled by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). Other systems, such as, Newark, Tyler and Tensil Bolt screens, are less widely used. For ease of comparison, every sieve is marked with the size of the mesh opening in both inches and millimeters. For example, the U.S. Standard Sieve No. 35 has a mesh opening of .0197 inches or .5mm. This is equivalent to the Newark No. 38 mesh sieve, which has an opening of .0198 inches. This is also quite close in size to the Tyler No. 32-mesh sieve. Round hole screens are occasionally used for black pepper and other spices.

A. WHAT DOES THE TERM GINGER U.S. 60 MESH MEAN? It means that the ginger is ground such that at least 95% of the spice will pass through a U.S. No. 60-mesh screen.

B. WHAT DOES THE PHRASE BLACK PEPPER 26/50 MESH MEAN? It means that the black pepper has been cracked rather than ground and that at least 90% of the particles range in size between 26 and 50 mesh. In fact, 95% must pass through the No. 26 screen and 95% must be retained above the No. 50 screen. Thus, since only 5% may be smaller than 50 mesh, this product is essentially a dustless pepper. The correct method of particle size analysis is by means of a mechanical shaking device. Screens, which are round and stackable, are placed in the proper sequence and shaken for 10 minutes. As an example, a typical quality assurance test would run like this: 100 grams of ground spice are weighed onto a 35-mesh screen. After shaking, 1 gram remains on top of the screen. Therefore, 99 grams or 99% of the sample passed through the screen. Result: The test shows that grinding specifications have been met and exceeded.

SPECIFICATIONS WHAT IS A SPICE OR SEASONING SPECIFICATIONS? Basically, it is a statement containing a designation and detailed description of each requirement of the product. It is also a guarantee that a particular spice or seasoning will be exactly the same order after order. This is so important because this sameness results in consistent quality food products, greater peace of mind for the food processor, and increased consumer confidence, sales volume and products. What are the considerations involved in developing good purchase specifications? Without a doubt, it is the intended usage application, which will determine the form and strength of the spice desired. The primary purpose of a specification is to guarantee the performance and function of the spice in the food product. The informed spice buyer must be able to answer these questions:

1. What is the form and consistency of the food product? Is it liquid, semi liquid, dry, solid or loose?

2. What medium will carry the spice? Oil, starch, water? Each makes different demands on the seasoning, related to blendability, flavor absorption, and flavor interactions.

3. What processing will be used? Canning, freezing, dehydrating, baking, smoking, pickling?

4. How will the spice or seasoning be added to the batch?

5. Will the food product be reheated? If so, the seasonings must be particularly heat stable.

6. What kind of market is targeted? Mass or specialty? Ethnic or general? Child, youth, adult, regional or national?

7. Is flavor or appearance most important? Is it to be tasted and not seen, or both, or will the spice be used primarily as a garnish?

8. Will the spice be featured or supportive? Will you be selling “Cinnamon rolls” or “Sweet rolls” which contain cinnamon?

9. What kind of packaging will be used for the food product? Will it allow volatilization of flavor?

10. What shelf life is anticipated for the food product?

11. And finally, what are the economics involved? Is this a top quality food, all natural, competitively priced or high-priced product? Is it merchandised on the basis of quality of flavor? And what competitive products are involved.

All of these questions must be answered before logical purchasing can begin. The ideal situation is one in which specifications are co-authored by the food processor and his spice supplier. Thus, buying and selling becomes a mutual problem-solving process rather than simply shopping for the lowest price. And cost savings can usually be accomplished without jeopardizing product quality.


BAY LEAVES – Imported from the Mediterranean area, the color is lighter and the taste not as bitter as domestic.

SWEET BASIL – Also imported, the leaves are of a consistent size and there are no large hard stems present. The deep green color indicates a sweet, warm flavor, with a light clove aroma.

CAYENNE PEPPER – Several varieties of hot peppers are blended together to maintain quality, strength, and uniformity. The Scoville heat units are 25,000 plus or minus 5,000. This is important in as much as it allows more use per pound than those with lesser heat units.

CELERY SALT – Formulated by Boyd’s to blend together the exact amount of salt and imported ground celery seed. The ground celery seed is of the more olive brown color that is familiar to Southern France.

CHILI POWDER – Boyd’s chili powder is made with the finest chili pepper available. The chili peppers are carefully dried in an ultra-modern drying process that turns the peppers automatically to insure that all moisture is removed. In addition to chili pepper, Boyd’s chili powder includes ground cumin seed, premium garlic powder, salt and oregano.

CINNAMON – Boyd’s cinnamon is the Korintji variety, the only better cinnamon being Saigon which is scarce and very high priced. Korintji cinnamon is characterized by a sweet, pleasant aroma and taste, not bitter like a lower quality cinnamon, such as Batavia.

CLOVES – Extreme care is used in selecting and cleaning only the finest clove buds. After cleaning, they are scientifically ground to retain full strength, flavor and aroma. The whole cloves have large whole heads with a uniform appearance. They are stored in a specially lined carton to prevent the clove from drying out and to keep the very volatile oil from seeping through the carton. GARLIC – Boyd’s garlic products are all premium quality Grade A. Available as powder, granulated, and in garlic salt, there are none other that will match the uniformity or grind and strength.

MUSTARD – The whole and dry mustard Boyd’s has available are of the yellow variety. The flavor is sharp, hot and pungent. Grind is very fine and of high quality. Boyd’s ground mustard is a golden yellow color with very few specks that would indicate a lesser quality. It has a pleasant, sweet pungent fragrance, with no bitter after taste.

PAPRIKA – A light red surface color for good eye appeal is a characteristic of Boyd’s paprika. It is prepared from whole dried domestic sweet red pepper pods, and therefore, retains the flavor characteristic of an almost tasteless, yet sweet character. The particle size is 100% through a 40-mesh screen.

BLACK PEPPER – Available in table grind (2070 mesh), medium coarse (1630), extra coarse (1220 mesh) cracked and whole. Boyd’s black pepper is a blend of Lampong and Malabar peppers. This blend is not as black and white as Brazilian pepper, yet the oil content is greater making it a superior product. Within a short time, Boyd’s clack pepper will have the unique distinction of being one of the first on the market guaranteed 100% bacteria treated. It will also be subject to cryogenic milling, which assures of consistent particle size. The table alleviates the powder, which is common in fine grind pepper. SAGE – Imported from the Dalmatian area of Yugoslavia for the best quality, this variety has the most desirable color and flavor. Available in whole, ground and rubbed form, the rubbed being coarser than ground. All Boyd spices are constantly rotated in storage, so the freshest products are available at all times. Spices deteriorate with age and heat and should never be kept over a stove. Cool, dry storage in an airtight container is the best way to maintain shelf life. Under good conditions, spices will retain aroma and flavor for a long period. Whole spices keep longer than ground, and herbs tend to lose flavor a little faster than items such as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, etc. Seasonings should be purchased in reasonable quantities and re-ordered frequently to assure maximum quality.


GINGER (root) Pungent, aromatic Baking, pickles, pudding, and Oriental food.

MARJORAM (leaf) Delicate sweet flavor. Vegetables, meats, poultry, soups, sauces.

MEXICAN SAGE (leaf) Aromatic, pungent Pizza, spaghetti sauce, omelets, beef, lamb. Blends well with sweet basil, especially in tomato dishes, chili and other Mexican dishes. MSG (food component derived from sugarbeet molasses) Emphasizes natural flavors of protein based foods. Meat, fish, poultry, casseroles, gravies, soups, stews and sauces. ½ teaspoon to 6 servings (1 lb.). Widely used in Chinese foods.

MUSTARD (seed) Ground mustard must be moistened to develop its pungency, or pressed to make “hot” mustard. Seeds used with cabbage or sauerkraut. Black mustard seed contains a volatile oil. Ground mustard is used in salad dressing, cheese sauces or mixed with salt and vinegar to make a mustard paste.

NUTMEG (seed) Sweet, warm, highly spicy. Baked goods, table sauces, sausages, preserves, eggnog.

OREGANO, Greek (means ‘Joy of the mountain) Often confused with marjoram. Milder flavor than Mex. Oregano. Pleasantly bitter and aromatic. Fish, meats, vegetables, wine, sauces, pizza.

PAPRIKA (ground pods) Sweet, mild, not pungent. Brilliant red color. Very high in Vitamin C. Garnish spice, especially for cheese, eggs, potatoes & light colored sauces. Also used in manufacture of sausages.

PARSLEY (leaves) 12# fresh = 1# dried. Mild, pleasant flavor, rich in Vitamin C & minerals Seasoning or garnish for soups, salads, fish, meats, sauces & vegetables.

POPPY SEED (non-narcotic) Nutty flavor Baked goods. Poppy seed butter used on noodles, rice, vegetables & fish.

ROSEMARY (leaves) Fresh, bittersweet flavor Lamb dishes, soups, stews.

SAFFRON (Stigma of the Crocus flower) The world’s most expensive spice. Highly aromatic, pleasantly spicy, pungent, bitter. Tenacious color. Essential ingredient in French bouillabaisse, and Spanish Rice dishes. Also used in pastries, cheeses & butters.

SAGE (leaves) Pungent & slightly bitter. Pizza, salads, pickles, cheese, sausages & poultry. SAVORY (leaves & tips) “The bean herb” Piquant – fragrant Beans, peas, lentils. Poultry, meats, soups, salads & sauces. As a garnish, instead of parsley.

SESAME SEED Oldest condiment known to man Nut-like Bakes goods, fish, Chinese candy. TARRAGON (leaves) Pungent and distinctive Salads, soups, sauces, vinegar’s, poultry & meats.

THYME (leaves) Warm, pleasant, aromatic, & pungent Chowders, sausages, meats, fish, poultry, tomatoes & liqueurs.

TURMERIC (Rhizomes) Spicy, peppery. Yellow in color & used like saffron. Prepared mustards, pickles and relishes. Used in curry powder. Fish, chicken and rice dishes.

A GUIDE TO SPICES Three centuries ago the work restaurant evolved from the popularity of a recipe for spiced broth (called a “restorative”) and the importance of spices in good restaurant cookery ahs never diminished. Today, this subject is more important than ever before. A knowing use of spices is not only a means to better flavored food but also a way of creating distinctively different dishes that will help a restaurant rise above it competition. This is true of foods prepared in traditional manner and is equally applied to the many convenience foods in use today. A dash of spice is the quickest, least expensive way to bring individuality to standardized food items. The modern spice shelf also holds many products that will save labor and time in food preparation. All this is possible when the restaurateur and his staff have a good knowledge of spices.

TIPS ON THE ART OF SEASONING In most cases spices and herbs should be used to aid and enhance the natural flavors of foods, not obscure them. The overall impression should be one of savoriness without any particularly dominant spice apparent. Exceptions to this would be foods such as curry or chili or gingerbread where the character of the dish depends on its spice.

HOW MUCH? Since the pungency of each spice differs and its effect on different foods varies, it is not possible to offer blanket rule for the amount to use. Following recipes that have been well tested is the surest practice. Where no recipe is available, start with about ¼ teaspoon of spice to each pound of meat or pint of sauce or soup. Make this 1/8 teaspoon in the case of red pepper (or cayenne) and garlic powder. You will probably findthese starter quantities should be increased in many instances, but it is easier to add than subtract.

WHEN TO ADD? Ground spices are ready to give up their flavors quickly. When used in a medium to long cooking dish, they should not be added until near the end of the cooking period. Otherwise, they should be added about the same time as the salt. In uncooked dishes, such as salad dressings and fruit juices, the spiced liquid should be left standing for several hours to develop good flavor. In the case of salad dressings particularly, add the spices to the vinegar and leave this to stand before adding the oil. If it is not possible to let it stand, the liquid should be brought to a boil and cooked, thus letting the heat bring out the flavor. Whole spices are especially useful in long cooking dishes. They should be added at the beginning of cooking. It is a good idea to place them in a small cheesecloth or muslin bag so that they may be easily removed when the desired flavor level is obtained. This also avoids any chance of pieces of whole spice remaining in the finished dish. Seeds such as poppy and sesame should be toasted before they are used. Whole (or “leaf”) herbs should be crumbled finely just before they are used, to release best flavor.

HOW TO BUY Strength, quality of flavor and good color are the most important considerations in buying spices. Any good, quality jobber or supply house will have high quality spices to offer. A jobber, backed by a quality spice-packaging house will be able to supply consistently fresh, well-flavored seasonings. To judge quality, examine the spice first for rich, fresh color (particularly important in the herbs and paprika); then bring it slowly up to the nostrils. Its pungence should rise up to meet you. It should be strong and fresh (excepting, of course, the few non-aromatic or faintly perfumed items such as mustard seed, sesame seed, poppy seed, etc.).

BEWARE OF IMITATIONS If a restaurant stresses good food it cannot afford to use something like imitation black pepper, mace or nutmeg. These products are cheap because they are made by spraying a little oil of the spice on a large amount of carrier (usually ground soya, buckwheat, cottonseed hulls or other waste grains). In the long run, however, they are very expensive because they do not do the flavoring job that is required of true pepper, mace d, or nutmeg. The real spices are not only vastly superior in flavor, they go farther and are more stable.

HOW TO STORE SPICES For best results, spices should be stored in as cool and dry a place as possible. Heat robs their flavors and dampness will cake them. Be sure also that containers are tightly closed after every use so that their valuable volatile oils are not lost. In very hot climates, it may be practical to place capsicum spices (paprika and red pepper) in the refrigerator to guard against infestation.

HOW LONG WILL THEY KEEP? Under good conditions (see above) spices will retain aroma and flavor for a long period. The whole spices will keep longer than ground spices. The herbs tend to lose flavor a little faster than such items as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, etc. As a result, many users prefer to buy herbs in the whole (or “leaf”) form in which state they store better. A restaurant, however, should never have to test spice storage life because seasonings should be purchased in reasonable quantities and re-ordered frequently.

LET SPICES SAVE TIME AND LABOR Among the newer developments in the spice industry are dehydrated vegetable seasonings, including various forms of onion, garlic, sweet peppers, celery, mint, parsley and mixed vegetables. These are labor savers when a recipe calls for the seasoning quality of any of these vegetables. If the recipe includes much liquid (i.e. stews and sauces) and the flakes are to remain in the liquid for several minutes before the dish is served, it may not be necessary even to rehydrate them. In the case of instant minced onion and parsley flakes, they will rehydrate sufficiently in about five minutes. For sweet pepper flakes, celery flakes and mixed vegetable flakes, you should allow about 20 minutes for rehydration (either before or during cooking). If, as in the case of a salad or garnish, rehydration is indicated, use equal parts of flakes and water for onion and parsley. For celery and sweet pepper, use twice the amount of water as flakes and when rehydrated, strain off the excess water. One part of instant minced onion or parsley flakes is equal to about four parts of the raw product in seasoning strength. One part of celery or sweet pepper flakes is equivalent to about two parts of the raw vegetable. The Spice Shelf In the following section you will find a listing of the products that are available, along with some how-to-use tips. Note that at the end of each listing there is a section called “Available”. This indicates what forms of the spice are commonly offered today. Not all spices and herbs are sold in both whole and ground forms whereas some come in a number of designations, i.e. “cracked”, “rubbed”, “minced”, etc., each made to fill some specific cooking need. Poppy and sesame seeds, for example, are never sold in ground form because they have such a high oil content. Attention to this can give you better results from your spice purchasing. Allspice (Pimenta officinalis) Origin and Description: Jamaica, Mexico, Central and South America. Allspice is a pea-sized fruit, which grows in small clusters on a tree. Picked green, they are shriveled brown berries after curing. As its name implies, allspice is reminiscent of several spices—cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves. Uses: Whole—pickling meats, gravies, boiling fish. Ground—baking, puddings, relishes, fruit preserves. Try adding a dash to tomato sauce. Available: “Whole Allspice” “Ground Allspice” Anise (Pimpinella anisum) Origin and Description: Spain and Mexico. Anise is a dried greenish-brown seed of a foothigh annual shrub. It is much used in flavoring licorice. Uses: Good in cookies, candies, sweet pickles and as beverage flavoring. Sprinkle on coffee cakes, sweet rolls. For anise cookies, just add ¼ teaspoon ground anise to cookie batter. Available: “Anise seed”

APPLE PIE SPICE (See section on “Blends”) Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Origin and Description: U.S. and North Mediterranean area. Also known as “Sweet Basil,” Basil is the cleaned and dried leaves and tender stems. Its aromatic flavor has a pleasing leafy note. Uses: An important seasoning in tomato paste and tomato dishes. Use in cooked peas, squash and snap beans. Famed for use in turtle soup. Sprinkle chopped basil leaves over lamb chops before cooking. Available: “Basil Leaves”

BARBECUE SPICE (See section on “Blends”) Bay Leaves (Lauris nobilis) Origin and Description: Turkey, Greece, Yugoslavia and Portugal. Bay leaves are the dried leaves of an evergreen tree. These smooth oblong leaves are deep green on the upper surface and paler beneath. The flavor is sweet and herbaceous with a delicate floral spice note. Uses: For pickling, stews, spice sauces and soups. Excellent for fish or chowder. Good with variety of meats, such as fricassee of kidney, heart or oxtail. Add bay leaf, with whole peppercorns, to tomato sauce for boiled cod. Available: “Bay Leaves”

CARAWAY SEED (Carum carvi) Origin and Description: Mostly from Netherlands. The biennial plant grows two or three feet high and the seeds are somewhat curved, tapering toward both ends. The flavor is a combination of Dill and Anise with a slight fruitiness. Caraway is the important ingredient in the cordial Kummel. Uses: Widely used in baking, especially rye bread. Good in sauerkraut, new cabbage, noodles and soft cheese spreads. Sprinkle over French Fried potatoes; on pork, liver, kidneys before cooking. Sprinkle canned asparagus with caraway before heating. Available: “Caraway Seed”

CARDAMOM SEED (Elettaria cardamomum) Origin and Description: Guatemala, India, Ceylon. Tiny brown seeds which grow enclosed in a white or green pod varying from ¼ to 1 inch in length. The flavor is sweet and spicy with a comphoraceous note. Uses: Whole—(in pod) used in Mixed Pickling Spice. See—(removed from pod) flavors demitasse. Ground—flavors Danish pastry, bun breads, coffeecakes. Improves flavor of Grape Jelly. Sprinkle ground cardamom on iced melon for breakfast or dessert. Available: “Whole Cardamom” “Ground Cardamom Seed”

CAYENNE PEPPER (See “Red Pepper”)

CELERY SEED (Apium graveolens) Origin and Description: India and France. Celery seed is a minute, olive-brown seed obtained from the celery plant. Celery Salt is made by combining celery seed with salt. Celery Seed has been described as having a parsley-nutmeg flavor. Uses: Excellent in pickling, salads, fish, salad dressings, and vegetables. For a different flavor, add celery seed to braised lettuce (about ½ teaspoon to a head lettuce). Ground celery excellent in tomato juice cocktail. Available: “Celery Seed” – “Celery Salt”

CELERY FLAKES Origin and Description: United States. Dehydrated, flaked leaves and stalks of vegetable celery. Uses: Soups stews, sauces, stuffings. Available: “Celery Flakes” CHILI POWDER (See section on “Blends”)

CINNAMON (Cinnamomum cassia) Origin and Description: Indonesia and Indo-China. Cinnamon comes from the bark of an aromatic evergreen tree. Almost all cinnamon sold in the U.S. is of cassia cinnamon variety (the spice trade often refers to it merely as “cassia”). This has the reddish brown color and pungently sweet aroma and flavor we expect in cinnamon. We also import a small amount of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) which is more buff colored and milder flavored. Uses: Whole—pickling, preserving, flavoring puddings, stewed fruits. Serve with clove-stuck lemon slices in hot tea. Used in hot wine drinks. Ground—baked goods, often in combination with allspice, nutmeg and cloves. The principal mincemeat spice. Combine with mashed sweet potatoes and with sugar for cinnamon toast. Dust on fried bananas. Available: “Stick Cinnamon” – “Ground Cinnamon”

CINNAMON SUGAR (See section on “Blends”)

CLOVES (Caryothyllus aromaticus) Origin and Description: From Zanzibar and Madagascar. Cloves are the fruit (dried flower buds) of a tree belonging to the evergreen family and are dark brown and dusky red in color. The flavor is characterized by a sweet, pungent spiciness. Uses: Whole—for pork and ham roasts, pickling of fruits, spiced sweet syrups. Ground—baked goods, chocolate puddings, stews vegetables. For a tastier meat stew add a small onion studded with 2 or 3 whole cloves. Available: “Whole Cloves” “Ground Cloves”

CORIANDER (Coriandrum sativum) Origin and Description: Mostly from Morocco and Yugoslavia. Coriander is the dried fruit of a small plant. It is nearly globular and about 1/8 inch long. Externally the seed is a weak orange-yellow to a moderate yellow-brown, often with a purplish red blush. In flavor it has a sweet dry, musty spice character tending toward lavender. Uses: Whole—in mixed pickles, gingerbread batter, cookies, cakes, biscuits, poultry stuffings, mixed green salads. Ground—in sausage making, to flavor buns. Rub ground coriander on fresh pork before roasting. Available: “Coriander Seed” – “Ground Coriander”

CRAB BOIL (See Section on “Blends”)

CUMIN (Cuminum cyminum) Origin and description: Iran, French Morocco and Spain. Cumin is a small dried fruit, oblong in shape, and resembles caraway seeds. The flavor is penetrating. Sometimes known as “Cominos” seed. Uses: An important ingredient in curry and chili powder. Available whole and ground. Good in soups, cheese, pies, stuffed eggs. For canapés, mix chutney with snappy cheese and garnish with cumin seed. Available: “Cumin Seed” – “Ground Cumin Seed”

CURRY POWDER (See Section on “Blends”)

DILL SEED (Anethum graveolens) Origin and Description: Mostly from India. Dill is the small dark seed of the dill plant. It is brown, broadly oval in outline and rounded at both ends. The flavor is clean, aromatic with a green weedy note. Uses: Used for pickling, in cooking sauerkraut, salads, soups, fish and meat sauces, gravies, spiced vinegars, green apple pie. Sprinkle dill seed on potato salad, cooked macaroni or when cooking sauerkraut. Available: “Dill Seed”

FENNEL (Foeniculum vulgare) Origin and Description: India and Rumania. Fennel is a small seed-like fruit with an agreeable odor and aromatic sweet taste somewhat like Anise. Uses: Popular in sweet pickles and Italian sausage. Used in boiled fish, pastries, candies and liqueurs. Add a dash to apple pie for an unusually good flavor. Available: “Fennel Seed”

GARLIC (Dehydrated) (Allium sativum) Origin and Description: Most of the garlic used in dehydrated products is grown in the U.S. This is the most strongly flavored of the plants in the allium family and is used in a wide range of dishes. Very pungent. Uses: Very convenient way of adding garlic flavor to foods. Available: “Instant Garlic Powder” – “Garlic Salt” – “Instant Minced Garlic”

GINGER (Zingiber Officinale) Origin and Description: Jamaica, India and West Africa. Ginger is the rhizome (root) of a tuberous plant. Externally it is a weak, yellow-orange, internally a yellow brown. The flavor is warm and fragrant, with a pungent spiciness. Uses: Whole—chutneys, conserves, pickling. Stew with dried fruits, applesauce. Ground—gingerbread, cakes, pumpkin pie, Indian pudding, canned fruits, pot roasts and other meats. Rub chicken inside and out with mixture of ginger and butter before roasting. Available: “Whole Ginger” – “Ground Ginger”

HERB SEASONING (See section on “Blends”)

ITALIAN SEASONING (See section on “Blends”)

MACE (Cortex myristicae fragrantis) Origin and Description: East and West Indies. Mace is the fleshy growth between the nutmeg shell and the outer husk, orange-red in color. Flavor resembles nutmeg. Uses: Whole (called “Blade”) – excellent in fish sauces, pickling, preserving. Add a chopped blade to gingerbread batter. Good in stewed cherries. Ground—essential in fine pound cakes, contributes a golden tone and exotic flavor to all yellow cakes. Valuable in all chocolate dishes. Use 1-teaspoon ground mace to 1 pint of whipped cream, cuts, and oiliness, increases delicacy. Available: “Ground Mace”

MARJORAM (Maioren hortensis) Origin and Description: France, Chile and Peru. Marjoram is an herb of the mint family. It has a peculiar, sweet-minty herbaceous type flavor. Uses: Leaf—delicious combined with other herbs in stews, soups, sausage, poultry seasonings. Good in fish and sauce recipes. Sprinkle over lamb while cooking for an excellent flavor touch. Available: “Marjoram Leaves”

MINT FLAKES (Mentha spicata or Mentha piperita) Origin and Description: U.S. and Europe. Dehydrated, flaked leaves of spearmint or peppermint. Strong, sweet flavor. Uses: Mint Flakes are used for flavoring soups, stews, beverages, jellies, fish, sauces, etc.

MIXED VEGETABLE FLAKES Origin and Description: United States. Mixture of dehydrated, flaked vegetables, usually composed of celery, green peppers, carrots. Uses: Convenient means of seasoning soups, stews, sauces, stuffings.

MUSTARD (White—Sinapis alba; Brown--Brassica juncea) Origin and Description: U.S., Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Both varieties are herbs, widely cultivated. Mustard is a small seed, the brown or black being dark brown spheroidal seeds, while the yellow or white are subglobular seeds. The yellow or white is the milder flavored whereas the brown or black is the pungent variety from which the mustard typically served in Chinese restaurants is made. Uses: Whole—used to garnish salads, pickled meats, fish and hamburgers. Powdered—meats, sauces, gravies. Add ½ teaspoon powdered mustard for each two cups of cheese sauce for macaroni. Available: “Mustard Seed” – “Powdered Mustard”

NUTMEG (Myristica fragrans) Origin and Description: East West Indies. Nutmeg is the kernel of the nutmeg fruit; it grows on a somewhat bushy tree which reaches a height of 40 feet. The fruit of the nutmeg tree is variable in shape—either glovular, oval or pear-shaped. The fleshy husk, grooved on one side, splits, releasing the deep-brown aromatic nutmeg. (An orange-red network of fleshy growth between the nut and outer husk is know as Mace). Nutmeg flavor is described as sweet, spicy type. Uses: Whole—to be grated as needed. Ground—used in baked goods, sauces, puddings. Topping for eggnog, custards, whipped cream. Good on cauliflower, spinach. Sprinkle on fried bananas, on bananas and berries with cream. Best spice for flavoring doughnuts. A pinch of nutmeg adds flavor to the crust for meat pie. Available: “Whole Nutmegs” – “Ground Nutmeg”

ONIONS (Dehydrated) (Allium capa) Origin and Description: Made in U.S. Dehydrated and processed onions. Now sold in several forms corresponding to the various sizes of onion cuts normally used in seasoning, i.e., slices, chopped, minced, etc. Convenient, labor savers wherever onion flavor is desired. Uses: Soups, chowders, stews, salads, dressings, sauces steaks, hamburgers, etc. Available: “Instant Chopped Onion” – “Instant Onion Powder” – “Granulated Onion” – “Sliced Onion” – “Onion Salt” – “Onion Flakes”

OREGANO (Lippia graveolans and Origunum species) Origin and Description: Greece, Italy and Mexico. Known also as Origanum and Mexican Sage. Uses: Good flavoring for any tomato dish, hence, used in Pizza and other Italian specialties. Available: “Oregano Leaves” – “Ground Oregano”

PAPRIKA (Capsicum annum) Origin and Description: Spain, Central Europe and the United States. A sweet red pepper, ground after seeds and stems have been removed. Most paprika sold in U.S. is mild and sweet in flavor, slightly aromatic and prized for brilliant red color. A type which has a slight pungency is also available. Uses: Used as colorful red garnish for any pale foods. Important ingredient in Chicken Paprika and Hungarian Goulash. Used on fish, shellfish, salad dressings, vegetables, meats, gravies, canapés. For an excellent canapé mix paprika with cream cheese and celery seed and serve on crackers. Available: “Paprika”

PARSLEY FLAKES (Petroselinum sativum) Origin and Description: Made in U.S. Dehydrated, flaked parsley leaf and stem material. Uses: Seasoning and garnish. Flavors soups, salads, meat, fish, sauces and vegetable dishes. For Spiced Potato Cakes made from leftover mashed potatoes, or to reheated mashed potatoes, try adding some parsley flakes, onion salt and paprika.

PEPPER BLACK & WHITE (Piper nigrum) Origin and Description: India, Borneo and Indonesia. Small dried berry of vine. Whole pepper is known as peppercorn. Pepper is the world’s most popular spice. White pepper is black peppercorn with the outer black cover removed. Use fresh pepper; buy small quantities and replace often! Flavor is warm, pungent, aromatic. Uses: Adds a spicy tang to almost all foods. A “must” in the kitchen and on the table. Whole (Black & White) – used in pickling, soups, and meats. Ground (Black & White) meats, sauces, gravies, many vegetables, soups, salads, eggs, etc. For curing Virginia-style hams. Dash fresh black pepper in tossed green salad. White pepper particularly useful in light colored sauces, soups, vegetables where dark specs are not wanted. Available: “Whole Black Pepper” – “Ground Black Pepper” – “Coarse Ground Black Pepper” – “Whole White Pepper” – “Ground White Pepper”.

PEPPER FLAKES (See Sweet Pepper Flakes)

POPPY (Papaver somniferum) Origin and Description: Netherlands. Tiny seeds of poppy plant; about 900,000 to the pound. Best is blue-colored seed from Holland. Has a crunchy nut-like flavor. Uses: Excellent as topping for breads, rolls, cookies. Also delicious in salads and noodles. Filling for pastries. Add poppy seeds to buttered noodles and mix thoroughly. Available: “Poppy Seed”.

POULTRY SEASONING (See section on “Blends”)

PUMPKIN PIE SPICE (See section on “Blends”)

RED PEPPER (Capsicum) Origin and Description: U.S., Mexico, Africa, Japan, Turkey, etc., depending on type. The pungent red peppers. There are dozens of types varying in degree of heat. A product sold as “Cayenne” or “Red Pepper” may contain several varieties in order to obtain desired strength. There are no heat standards for “Cayenne”, “Red Pepper”, etc., so it is better to consult your supplier as to the relative strength of his various products. Uses: Whole—Pickles, relishes, hot sauces. Crushed—sauces, pickles, highly spiced meats, a prime ingredient for many Italian specialty dishes, including certain sausages. Ground – with discretion in meats, sauces, fish, egg dishes. A touch of Ground Red Pepper (or Cayenne) plus ¼ teaspoon paprika added to 2 or 3 tablespoons butter makes excellent sauce for vegetables. Available: “Whole Red Pepper” – “Crushed Red Pepper” – “Ground Red Pepper” – “Cayenne”

ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis) Origin and Description: France, Spain and Portugal. A spiky herb; looks like curved pine needle and is sweet and fresh tasting. Uses: Used in lamb dishes, in soups and stews. Sprinkle on beef before roasting. Flavors fish and meat stocks. Add a dash of rosemary to boiled potatoes in the early stages of cooking. Available: “Rosemary Leaves”

SEASONED or FLAVOR SALT (See section on “Blends”)

SAFFRON (Crocus sativus) Origin and description: Spain. The World’s most expensive spice, yet a little goes a long way. Takes 224,000 stigma of a crocus-like flower to make a pound. Flavor is distinctive and agreeable in character, but its ability to give food an appetizing yellow color is equally prized. Uses: In baked goods. Most highly esteemed in “Arroz Con Pollo”, the rice-chicken dish of Spain. To add golden color and delicious flavor to rice, boil pinch of saffron in water for a moment before adding rice. Available: “Saffron”

SAGE (Salvia officinalis) Origin and Description: Choicest comes from Yugoslavia: also grown in Greece. Sage is a perennial shrub about 2 feet high. Flavor is camphoraceous, with a minty spiciness. Uses: Particularly good with pork and pork products. Used in sausages, meat stuffings, baked fish and poultry. Excellent in salad greens. Available: “Sage Leaves” – “Rubbed Sage” (finer consistency than leaves) “Ground Sage”

SAVORY (Satureia hortensis) Origin and Description: France and Spain. Herb of the mint family, grown in many climates. Flavor is delicately sweet and herbaceous resembling thyme. Uses: Combined with other herbs, makes an excellent flavoring for meats, meat dressings, chicken, fish sauces. A pinch of savory gives a lift to scrambled eggs. Available: “Savory Leaves” – “ground Savory”

SEAFOOD SEASONING (See section on “Blends”)

SHRIMP SPICE (See section on “Blends”)

SESAME (Sesamum indicum) Origin and Description: Central America, Egypt, and U.S. Sesame is a small, honey-colored seed with gentle, nut-like flavor and high oil content. Uses: A rich toasted-nut flavor when baked on rolls, breads and buns. Principal ingredient in Oriental candy, halvah. Add to lightly cooked cold spinach which has been blended with soy sauce. Turn out of custard cup and top with grated raw beets or carrots. Available: “Sesame Seed” (it is a good idea to specify hulled also, since restaurants would not be satisfied with “unhulled” Sesame).

SWEET PEPPER FLAKES Origin and Description: Made in U.S. Dehydrdated, flaked sweet green or red peppers, or a mixture of both green and red (the red being sweet, not hot). Uses: A convenient way of adding green or red pepper flavor to sauces, salads, vegetables, casseroles, when a fine diced pepper is called for.

TARRAGON (Artemisia dracunculus) Origin and Description: France and Spain. Tarragon is a small perennial plant which forms tall stalks about one and one-half yards high. Minty, herbaceous and Anise-like in flavor. Uses: Used in sauces, salads, chicken, meats, egg and tomato dishes. The important flavoring of tarragon vinegar. Just before taking broiled chicken out of oven, season and sprinkle with finely minced tarragon and serve with pan gravy. Available: “Tarragon Leaves”

THYME (Thymus vulgaris) Origin and Description: France and Spain. Thyme is a low shrub about a foot high. The leaves and stems of this garden herb have a strong distinctive flavor. Uses: Used in stews, soups and poultry stuffings. Excellent in clam and fish chowders, sauces, croquettes, chipped beef, fricassees. Thyme and fresh tomatoes go together like hand and glove. Sprinkle thyme over sliced tomatoes in bed of lettuce, use vinegar and olive oil dressing, with salt and pepper. Available: “Thyme Leaves” – “Ground Thyme”

TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) Origin and Description: India, Haiti, Jamaica and Peru. Root of the ginger family, orange-yellow in color. Important ingredient of curry powder. Flavor has a mild ginger-pepper note. Uses: Used as flavoring and coloring in prepared mustard, and is used in combination with mustard as flavoring for meats, dressings and salads. Used in pickling, Chow-Chow and other relishes. Try a little turmeric in creamed eggs, fish, seafood. Available: “Ground Turmeric”

BLENDS Many mixtures, or blends, of spices have been developed by spice manufacturers to make the art of seasoning a quick and easy task. In some cases a specific blend may be unique with the company that produces it; in others, the blend may be one that has been adopted by most spice packagers. The following are the blends that are now sold by most spice firms and thus would be available to restaurants throughout the country:

APPLE PIE SPICE A ground blend of the sweet baking spices, with a predominance of cinnamon. Cloves, nutmeg or mace, allspice, and ginger are typical inclusions also. Good for all fruit pies and pastries.

BARBECUE SPICE A ground blend of many spices such as chili peppers, cumin, garlic, cloves, paprika, salt and sugar. Designed to be the basic seasoning for a barbecue sauce, but good also in salad dressing, meat casserole, hash brown potatoes, eggs and cheese dishes.

CHILI POWDER A ground blend of chili peppers, oregano, cumin seed, garlic, salt and sometimes such spices as cloves, red pepper and allspice. Basic seasoning for Mexican-style cooking, including chili con carne. Good in shell fish and oyster cocktail sauces, boiled and scrambled eggs, gravy and stew seasoning. Try it in ground meat or hamburgers.

CINNAMON SUGAR There are few if any times in cooking and baking when cinnamon isn’t accompanied by sugar and this skillful blend of the two thus becomes a very convenient product. It is especially useful for cinnamon toast and as a quick topping for many other sweet goods.

CRAB BOIL OR SHRIMP SPICE These products are similar or identical (depending on the manufacturer) both being mixtures of several whole spices that are to be added to the water when boiling seafood. Typically, they include whole peppercorns, bay leaves, red peppers, mustard seeds, ginger and other spices in whole form.

CURRY POWDER A ground blend of as many as 16 to 20 spices, designed to give the characteristic flavor of Indian curry cookery. Ginger, turmeric, fenugreek seed, cloves, cinnamon, cumin seed, black pepper and red pepper are typical with others being used according to the manufacturer’s individual formula. Used in curry sauces, for curry eggs, vegetables, fish and meat. Try a dash in French dressing, scalloped tomatoes, clam and fish chowders and split pea soup.

HERB SEASONING This is a savory blend of herbs, particularly suited to salads and salad dressings. Actually, the blend varies somewhat according to the brand, but the end uses are essentially the same. Note that the term “herb” specifically refers to the milder flavored leafy products (i.e. marjoram, oregano, basil, chervil, etc.) as opposed to the stronger flavored tropical spices (i.e. pepper, cloves, cinnamon, etc.)

ITALIAN SEASONING Italian dishes have become so popular in this country that cooks asked for a simple way to achieve the characteristic flavoring of this cuisine. While no one blend could accomplish this completely, it is well know that such seasonings as oregano, basil, red pepper and rosemary are certainly typical of many Italian creations—particularly the popular pastas and pizza. Italian Seasoning characteristically contains these and possibly garlic powder and others.

MIXED PICKLING SPICE A mixture of several whole spices, usually including mustard seed, bay leaves, black and white peppercorns, dill seed, red peppers, ginger, cinnamon, mace, allspice, coriander seed, etc. Useful for pickling and preserving meats and to season vegetables, relishes, and sauces. Also good in stews and soups.

POULTRY SEASONING A ground blend of sage, thyme, marjoram and savory and sometimes rosemary and other spices. For poultry, veal, pork and fish stuffings. Good with paprika for meat loaf. For a delightful combination, add to biscuit batter to serve with poultry.

PUMPKIN PIE SPICE A ground blend of cinnamon, cloves and ginger. Designed particularly for pumpkin pie, it is good also in spice cookies, gingerbread and breakfast buns. French fry slices of raw pumpkin and dust lightly with pumpkin pie spice for a delicious “something new”.

SEAFOOD SEASONING A ground blend of approximately the same spices as used in Crab Boil and Shrimp Spice with the addition of salt. Especially good in seafood sauces because the ground seasoning blends into the sauce completely.

SEASONED or FLAVOR SALT This product goes by different names, according to the brand, but the idea is essentially the same. It is a mixture of spices, herbs and salt which is designed to be an all-purpose seasoning. Many restaurants now place it next to the pepper on the table; others use it in preparation. It is especially suited to meats, vegetables, sauces and dairy foods. :

• Stir instant minced or powdered onion and garlic to taste into canned soups, stews and sauces.

• Potatoes, carrots, peas and tomatoes are delicious seasoned with a bit of basil, oregano or tarragon and a little instant minced onion. Add the herb during the last five to ten minutes of cooking.

• Black pepper adds mysterious fragrance to the “sweet spices” in spice cakes. Use about 1/8 teaspoon in a standard layer cake.

• Stir toasted sesame seed into your favorite poultry stuffing; it adds delicate flavor and crunchiness. To toast, scatter in a skillet over moderate heat and stir constantly for a minute or two.

• Blend a liberal measure of paprika, chili or curry powder into mayonnaise and spread over fish fillets before broiling or baking.

• Stir a couple of teaspoons of caraway seeds into the cheese sauce for a macaroni and cheese casserole.

• A half-teaspoon of anise seeds, cooked briefly in the syrup for a pound of fresh or dried fruits gives delightful aroma to the compote.

• Rub ground ginger along with your usual seasonings into a chicken or turkey before roasting.

• Powdered mustard in an oil and vinegar salad dressing not only adds a distinctive nip but makes the dressing creamier.

• Pumpkin pie spice is a perfect seasoning in cakes, cookies, fruit pies, baked winter squash and sweet potatoes.

1 cup dairy sour cream
1 teaspoon garlic powder
¾ teaspoon basil leaves, crumbled
½ teaspoon sugar ½ teaspoon salt
¼ teaspoon ground black pepper
1 tablespoon milk
1 teaspoon white vinegar

In a medium bowl combine all ingredients; mix well. Cover and refrigerate until ready to serve.

YIELD: 1 cup dressing.

1 tablespoon coarse ground black pepper
2 pounds boneless sirloin, round or shoulder steak
1 teaspoon powdered mustard
1 teaspoon warm water
1/3 cup lemon juice
2 tablespoons cider vinegar
1/3 cup catsup
¼ cup salad oil
1 tablespoon brown sugar
2 teaspoons onion powder
1 teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon garlic powder

With the back of a spoon press black pepper into both sides of steak. Place steak in a snug-fitting glass, enamel or stainless steel pan. In a small saucepan combine mustard with water; let stand for 10 minutes. Add remaining ingredients; mix well. Bring to the boiling point; remove from heat and cool. Pour over steak, turning steak to coat bother sides with marinade. Cover and refrigerate for 24 hours. Remove steak from marinade; reserve marinade. Place steak in a pan on a rack under a hot broiler or over hot charcoal; grill under steak is done as desired, 10 to 12 minutes on each side for medium, brushing occasionally with reserved marinade.

YIELD: 6 to 8 portions.

1/3 cup lemon juice
¾ teaspoon oregano leaves
1/3 cup water
½ teaspoon garlic powder
¼ cup catsup
¼ teaspoon ground red pepper
1 ½ tablespoons dark brown sugar
¼ teaspoon powdered mustard
1 tablespoon paprika
¼ teaspoon thyme leaves
1 tablespoon onion powder
2 tablespoons oil
1 ½ teaspoons cornstarch
1 ½ teaspoons parsley flakes
1 ¾ teaspoons salt,
divided 3 pound chicken, cut in eighths

In a small saucepan combine lemon juice, water, catsup, brown sugar, paprika, onion powder, cornstarch, ¾ teaspoon of the salt, oregano, garlic powder, red pepper, mustard and thyme; blend well. Stir in oil. Cook and stir until mixture thickens, about 3 minutes. Remove from heat; stir in parsley flakes; set aside. Sprinkle both sides of chicken with remaining 1 teaspoon salt. To broil, arrange chicken on a rack in a broiler pan. Place under a hot broiler, 6 inches from heat source. Broil for 30 minutes, turning often. Brush with reserved barbecue sauce; broil until chicken is tender, 15 to 20 minutes, turning and brushing with sauce often. Or, arrange chicken on a grill over slow burning charcoal. Cook following preceding directions.

YIELD: 4 portions

CHICKEN KORMA (Curried Chicken)
1/3 cup onion flakes
½ teaspoon instant minced garlic
¼ cup water
2 tablespoons butter or margarine
2 tablespoons oil
3 pounds chicken, cut in eighths
2 tablespoons curry powder
½ teaspoon ground turmeric
1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper
1 bay leaf
½ cup plain yogurt
1 teaspoon salt
Steamed rice

In a cup combine onion flakes and minced garlic with water; let stand for 10 minutes to rehydrate. In a large skillet heat butter and oil. Add chicken, a few pieces at a time; brown on both sides; remove and set aside. Add onion and garlic along with the curry powder, turmeric, black pepper and a bay leaf; cook and stir for 3 minutes. Remove from heat; stir in yogurt and salt. Add browned chicken pieces, spooning some of the sauce over the chicken. Simmer, covered, until chicken is fork-tender, about 35 minutes. Arrange chicken on a heated platter over steamed rice. Remove excess fat from sauce; spoon over chicken. If desired, sprinkle with coconut.

YIELD: 4 portions

2 packages (8 oz. each) cream cheese, softened
1 package (8 oz.) blue cheese, crumbled
2 tablespoons instant minced onion
¼ teaspoon instant garlic powder
1 to 2 tablespoons paprika

In a medium bowl combine cream and blue cheeses, minced onion and garlic powder; mix well. With hands shape cheese mixture to resemble a ball. Chill until firm. Sprinkle paprika heavily over entire cheese surface. Serve with crisp crackers or raw vegetables, if desired.

YIELD: 1 large cheese ball

1 cup butter or margarine, softened
1 ¼ cups sugar
¼ cup mild flavored molasses
1 egg
2 tablespoons milk
3 ¾ cups all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons baking soda
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
1 ¾ teaspoons ground ginger
½ teaspoon ground cloves
½ teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper

In the large bowl of an electric mixer cream butter, sugar and molasses until light and fluffy. Add egg and milk; beat until blended. Combine flour, baking soda, cinnamon, ginger, cloves, salt and black pepper. With mixer set at low speed gradually stir in flour mixture; beat until smooth. On a lightly floured surface, roll out dough, half at a time, 1/8 to ¼-inch thick. With a floured cookie cutter, cut out dough. Place 1 inch apart on ungreased baking sheets. If desired, press half of a blanched almond on top of each cookie. Bake in a preheated moderate oven (350 degrees F.) until golden and set, about 8 minutes. Remove cookies to wire racks to cool.

YIELD: About 4 dozen cookies (2-inch rounds)

1 cup butter or margarine, divided
1 cup chopped walnuts
½ cup firmly-packed dark brown sugar
5 teaspoons ground cinnamon, divided
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg, divided
3 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon baking soda
½ teaspoon salt
1 cup granulated sugar
2 eggs
2 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
½ cup dairy sour cream
½ cup milk
2 tablespoons confectioners’ sugar
1 teaspoon water

In a small saucepan melt ¼ cup of the butter. Stir in walnuts, brown sugar, 2 teaspoons of the cinnamon and ½ teaspoon of the nutmeg; mix well and reserve for later use. In a medium bowl mix together flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt and remaining 3 teaspoons cinnamon and ½ teaspoon nutmeg; set aside. In the large bowl of an electric mixer cream remaining ¾ cup butter with granulated sugar until light and fluffy. Beat in eggs, one at a time. Stir in vanilla extract. Alternately stir in flour mixture with sour cream and milk, beginning and ending with flour. Blend until smooth. Spoon half of the butter into a greased 9-inch tube pan. Spread half of the reserved nut mixture over batter. Repeat once more. Bake in a preheated moderate oven (350 F.) until golden and cake tester inserted into center comes out clean, about 45 minutes. Let cool in pan on wire rack for 10 minutes. Remove cake from pan; cool on rack. Mix confectioners’ sugar with water; dribble over cake. Slice and serve.

YIELD: One 9-inch cake

3 tablespoons instant minced onion
1 teaspoon instant minced garlic
3 tablespoons water
3 tablespoons oil
1 ½ pounds ground lean beef
1 can (1 lb.) tomatoes, broken up
2 ½ tablespoons chili powder
1 ½ teaspoons salt
1 teaspoon oregano leaves, crumbled
¼ teaspoon ground cumin

In a cup combine minced onion and garlic with water; let stand for 10 minutes to rehydrate. In a large skillet heat oil until hot. Add onion and garlic; sauté for 2 minutes. Add beef; cook and stir until browned. Blend in tomatoes, chili powder, salt, oregano and cumin. Bring to the boiling point. Reduce heat and simmer, uncovered, for 10 minutes. Serve with pinto or pink beans over steamed rice, if desired.

YIELD: 6 portions

1 cup tomato juice
¼ cup vinegar
2 tablespoons firmly-packed brown sugar
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 tablespoon instant minced onion
1 tablespoon salad oil
1 teaspoon powdered mustard
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
¼ teaspoon ground red pepper
1 chicken or beef bouillon cube

In a small saucepan combine all ingredients; bring to the boiling point. Reduce heat and simmer until mixture thickens, about 3 minutes, stirring constantly. Use as basting sauce for barbecuing chicken, beef, lamb, veal or pork.

YIELD: About 1 ½ cups

4 cups old-fashioned or quick cooking oats, uncooked
1 can (4 oz.) shredded coconut
½ cup sesame seed
½ cup sunflower seed
½ cup toasted wheat germ
1 ½ teaspoons ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
½ cup honey
½ cup oil
1 cup dark raisins

In a large bowl combine oats, coconut, sesame seed, sunflower seed, wheat germ, cinnamon and nutmeg. Add honey and oil; mix well. Pour into two jellyroll pans. Bake in a preheated moderate oven (350 degrees F.) until golden, about 18 minutes, stirring occasionally. Cool and crumble. Stir in raisins. Store refrigerated in tightly covered containers.

YIELD: About 10 cups.

1 pound dried pea beans water
¼ cup mild flavored molasses
3 tablespoons brown sugar
2 tablespoons instant minced onion
2 ¼ teaspoons salt
1 teaspoon powdered mustard
¾ teaspoon ground ginger
½ pound salt pork

Wash beans; soak in cold water to cover for 6 to 8 hours. Drain. Place in a large heavy saucepan. Add water to cover (about 6 cups). Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer, covered, for 30 minutes. Drain beans, reserving liquid. Place beans in 2-quart bean pot or casserole. Combine 1 cup of the reserved liquid with the molasses, brown sugar, minced onion, salt, mustard and ginger; stir into beans. Score salt pork making cuts ½ inch apart 1 inch deep. Bury in center of beans, leaving rind exposed. Add enough of the remaining liquid to cover the beans. Cover. Bake in a preheated slow oven (300 degrees F.) for 6 to 8 hours. Stir beans once or twice during cooking, adding boiling water if necessary.

YIELD: 6 to 8 portions

2 pounds lean boneless pork, cut into 1-inch cubes
¼ cup flour
1 tablespoon oil
1 cup orange juice
2 tablespoons lemon juice
½ cup water
3 tablespoons dark brown sugar
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 ¼ teaspoons salt
¾ teaspoon ground ginger
1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper
¼ cup golden seedless raisins
½ cup diced orange sections

Dredge meat in flour; shake off excess. In a large skillet heat oil until hot. Add meat; brown on all sides. Remove meat from skillet Pour off fat. Stir in orange and lemon juices, water, brown sugar, cornstarch, salt, ginger, nutmeg and black pepper; mix well. Bring to the boiling point. Return meat to the skillet. Add raisins. Simmer, covered, until meat is tender, 30 to 40 minutes. Stir in orange sections; heat until hot. Serve with noodles, if desired.

YIELD: 4 to 6 portions